2023 Formulary Exclusions Lists: A Review of Express Scripts, CVS Caremark, and OptumRx

It’s back…PHSL’s annual review of the big 3 PBM formulary exclusion list updates! Express Scripts (ESI), CVS Caremark, and OptumRx published their formulary exclusions for January 2023. Based on PHSL’s review, OptumRx leads the way with over 77 new formulary exclusions. ESI added 36 new exclusions, while CVS Caremark only excluded an additional 26 drugs. Although CVS Caremark excluded nearly 30 new drugs, they anticipate that 99.72% of their clients will not be impacted by any medication changes because of these formulary removals. The January 2023 exclusions, as researched by PHSL, are as follows:

ESI 2023 Formulary Exclusions

CVS Caremark 2023 Formulary Exclusions

OptumRx 2023 Formulary Exclusions

During the review, PHSL made the following observations:

  • ESI focused more attention on anticonvulsant agents. Examples of exclusions in this category include Banzel, Onfi, Klonopin, and Vimpat.
  • CVS Caremark’s focus was on chemotherapy agents, such as Rubraca, Sutent, and Alimta.
  • OptumRx focused on autonomic and central nervous system agents. Specific agents excluded by OptumRx are Daytrana, Ponvory, and Quillichew ER.
  • All three PBMs excluded numerous respiratory products. CVS Caremark excluded Flovent Diskus, instead preferring Flovent HFA or Pulmicort Flexhaler. OptumRx excluded generic fluticasone-salmeterol products in favor of Advair Diskus, likely due to rebates.  OptumRx also excluded Dulera, Incruse Ellipta, Tudorza, Bevespi, and QVAR Redihaler.  Like OptumRx, ESI excluded Incruse Ellipta and Tudorza Pressair in favor of Spiriva.  Although many of these changes are likely rebate driven, from a clinical perspective, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines were also updated in 2022 and now seem to generally prefer the combination of formoterol paired with an inhaled corticosteroid when an inhaled corticosteroid is prescribed.
  • Both OptumRx and ESI excluded the Glucagen Hypokit for 2023, while the product was already excluded by CVS Caremark in 2022.The Glucagon Emergency Kit manufactured by Eli Lilly is the preferred alternative for each of these PBMs. ESI specifically notes that the Fresenius brand of the Glucagon Emergency Kit is also excluded, with only the Eli Lilly Glucagon Emergency Kit being a preferred alternative.
  • As CVS Caremark did in 2022, ESI greatly restricted coverage of diabetic supplies and needles. Any insulin needle or syringe that is not BD Diabetes brand is excluded by ESI in 2023. PHSL suspects that this change is largely rebate driven.
  • OptumRx still requires prior authorization for Hepatitis C, Multiple Sclerosis, and Immunomodulator treatments. In 2022, OptumRx changed many of their preferred agents by replacing Simponi Aria and Renflexis with Avsola as a preferred immunomodulator. Kesimpta and dimethyl fumarate DR replaced Tecfidera for multiple sclerosis preferred treatments. There was no change in preferred Hepatitis C medications. For 2023, no additional changes are expected.
  • CVS Caremark excluded brand Narcan after previously covering the opioid reversal agent. Although no alternative agent was listed, PHSL suspects that the change is due to the introduction of numerous generic agents.
  • As mentioned in our 2022 Exclusion List Review, ESI continues to use indication-based management for the “inflammatory conditions” drug class. There are no additional excluded medications this year.

Each of the major PBMs have taken a different approach to managing drug expenditure in 2023, with formulary exclusions continuing to play a significant role. PBMs exclude products because of clinical, financial, and humanistic reasons. Each PBM makes value judgements and determines what coverage is no longer warranted. This article represents PHSL’s analysis of publicly available information regarding the three PBM’s formulary exclusion for 2023. Readers are encouraged to assess the lists for themselves, using the formulary and exclusion list source information provided in the links below.

 

Posted January 11, 2023

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